Paramaethu Cymru / Permaculture Wales
|Yr enw, neu yr enwau...sut i gyfieithu y gair "permaculture"? Doedd y grŵp gweithio gwreiddiol ddim yn fodlon i wneud benderfyniad heb mwy o adborth gan aeloadau o'r Cymru Cymraeg. Roedd yna amryw o dewisiadau...
The name, or names...how to translate the word "permaculture". The original working group were not willing to make a decision without more feedback from members of the Welsh speaking Welsh. There were several options....
Permaddiwylliant: Bwrdd Yr Iaith Gymraeg
Amaeth Parhaol: Prifysgol Cymru y Drindod Dewi Sant, yn dilyn cyfieithiad gwreiddiol Nesta Wyn Jones a fi, yn gynnar yn y nawdegau.
Permaddiwylliant : the Welsh Language Board
Amaeth Parhaol: University of Wales Trinity Saint David's, following the original translation by Nesta Wyn Jones and myself in the early nineties.
Newyddion o'r Eisteddfod Genedlaethol 2012 / News from the 2012 National Eisteddfod
Mynychodd cynrhychiolwyr y grŵp gweithio yr Eisteddfod ar Y Maes Gwyrdd, i gasglu sylwadau. Representatives of the working group attended the Eisteddfod on the Green Field, to gather comments. "As expected and hoped for, there has been a lot of discussion at the Eisteddfod about the name "Permaddiwylliant" which is definitely NOT favoured! There is however a very positive response to "Paramaeth". One lady responded with tears in her eyes saying it sounded like "paradwys" (paradise). Very positive responses have also come from linguists at Bangor University who offered to take this up officially, and later the same day officials from the Welsh Language Commission quickly grasped the nonsense of "permaddiwylliant" and appreciated the reasoning behind "paramaeth" and are going to look into it. So in some ways the decision may not be ours to make... To explain why "paramaeth" works so well, "amaeth" is the word for Agriculture, "parhaol" is the Welsh for permanent, but additionally para is a colloquialism meaning "to continue" or "to last" "
""Amaeth" meant originally a husbandman, or cultivator, and comes from Amaethon, who was a Welsh deity associated with farming, a husbandman. He was one of the children of Dôn, who was a mother goddess. (Amaethon is found in the story of Culhwch and Olwen).
At some point "amaeth" was adopted as the word for agriculture. As a verb "amaethu" is usually translated as "to cultivate". It relates to the noun "maeth", nourishment and the verb "maethu", to nourish or foster, hence "maethle", a nursery and Ysgol Feithrin, nursery school. So there are strong links with culture, as in cultivate and nurture (definitions are from Y Geiriadur Mawr)."
Newyddion diweddaraf / Latest news
|Mae 'amaeth' yn enw gwrywaidd er bod rhai yn dadlau mai benywaid yw 'amaeth'. I ddechrau roedden ni yn defnyddio 'paramaeth' fel enw benywaid ac roedd enw y grŵp 'Paramaeth Gymru', efo treiglad meddal. Ar ol trafodaeth efo rhywun o'r Ganolfan Safoni Termau (rhan o'r Uned Technolegau Iaith) ym Mhrifysgol Bangor, awgrymwyd bydd yn well i ddefnyddio 'paramaeth' fel enw gwrywaidd a felly newid enw y grŵp at 'Paramaeth Cymru', heb treiglad.
'Amaeth' (agriculture) is a masculine noun although some argue it feminine. Initially we used 'paramaeth' as a feminine noun and the name of the group was Paramaeth Gymru' with a soft mutation of the C of Cymru to G, giving Gymru. After discussion with the Terminology Centre (part of the Language Technologies Unit) at Bangor University, it was suggested we use 'paramaeth' as a masculine noun and so changed the name of the group to Paramaeth Cymru', without a mutation. (Mutations in the Welsh language are one of the greatest mysteries for learners but in turn, when understood, make it so special).
|Awgrymwyd hefyd bod ni yn creu 'paramaethu' fel berfenw i gyd-fynd gyda'r enw 'paramaeth'. Mae'n well gan y Gymraeg ddefnyddio berfenw yn lle mae'r Saesneg yn tueddu i ddefnyddio enw.
|It was also suggested that we create 'paramaethu' as a verb to coincide with the noun 'paramaeth'. The Welsh prefer using a verb/noun where the English tend to use the noun. This means the name 'Paramaethu Cymru' also suggests 'Permaculturing Wales'.
Felly yr enw ar gyfer y rhydwaith yng Nghymru yw / So the name for the network in Wales is
Paramaethu Cymru / Permaculture Wales